ゴールドスミス・ノートが気になる(14)

紙幣登場の謎は活発な手形取引だった可能性

しばしテンプル騎士団の調査はお休みして別の方面から考える時間を設けたい。
 
「手形」というキーワードで検索をかけていくつか読んでいたら、何だか分からないことが出てきた。14世紀の北イタリアで始まったもの、というのがまず目をひいたものの、8世紀のイスラムの世界では手形取引が認められる…、というものもあったり、古バビロニアの時代には既に現代の手形のような取引、もしくはそれに準じた取引が行われていたという言及までみつかった。古バビロニアっていつ頃なのか調べてみたらバビロン第一王朝ということでBC2000年というとてつもない古さで、ハムラビ法典で有名な第六代のハンムラビ王の在位が前1792年‐前1750年というのだから、それぞれの指摘には信憑性があるものの、やはりあまりに時代が乖離していることに驚かされる。
しかし、盛んに商取引と金融取引が行われていた時代に手形取引がなかったと考えることは非現実的なので私個人の直感としてはバビロン第一王朝の頃には手形取引、もしくはそれに準じた取引は盛んに行われていたと考えておきたい。貸出し過剰で経済が混乱することも多かったというから、逆にいえば信用創造が大々的に行われるかなり進んだ経済体制だったことが伺われる。
そして、バビロンといえば域内にフェニキアもユダヤも含めて統治した一大王国であったのだから、この商売と金融の化け物のような神がかった民族が王国内にあって手形取引程度のことを活用しないはずがない。

手形のルーツについては今後じっくり調べていけばいいものと思うが、なぜ手形なるものに興味を持つに至ったのか…という点が私にとっては重要だ。手形というからには金融業者がいて、支払う振出人がいて、集金しようとする手形の所有者がいるわけだ。振出人は金融業者に資金を預けてあるのは勿論だ。支払いを受ける側の手形の所有者も別のシチュエーションでは手形の振出人になるわけだから、払った集金したといっても金融業者の口座の中を資金が残高を変えながら増えたり減ったりしているだけに過ぎない。
そうであるなら、口座に置いてある重たい鋳造硬貨はいちいち出し入れする必要がなくなり帳簿上の書換え業務が取って替わり、実物流通経済においては重たい鋳造硬貨をやりとりするよりも軽い紙幣に置き換えた方がありがたいのは勿論だ。金融業者に行く度に10kg持って行ったり7kg引き出してきたり、現実的にはやってられないだろう。そこで登場してくるのが持ち運びに軽くて便利な紙幣というものだったに違いない。これは業者と顧客の双方にニーズが一致していたから問題なく広まっていった新システムで、別に金融業者の陰謀で紙幣が考案されたわけではないものと思う。こうしたことを初めて大々的にシステムとして行い始めたのが実はテンプル騎士団だったということで考えておきたい。
もっとも紙幣という言葉は後々の時代が命名したもので、当初は引換券とか銀行券とか例えばテンプル騎士修道会券とか…、いろんな呼ばれ方をしていたはずだ。要はその引換券を持っていればいつでも本来の金貨なり銀貨なりの国王発行の鋳造硬貨に交換してくれるという信頼さえあればよかったわけだ。その引換券が修道会発行だって一向にかまわないのは当り前だ。
紙幣というものは、こんな登場の仕方をしたのに違いない。一応、そう思っておこう。
そしてこのプライベートな印刷物はどのくらい発行しても業務に支障をきたさないか長年の思考錯誤で発見したレベルが、顧客から預かっている資産の10倍前後までOK!ということに落ち着いていったわけだ。

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