ゴールドスミス・ノートが気になる(9)

十字軍遠征の戦費はどこから調達?

あっという間に日が経ってしまう。1週間、2週間と経ってしまうと、前回最後に書いたときの自分の問題意識が何であったのかも、すぐには思い出せない。年を感じる。
とにかく、まず金匠がいつごろから顧客から金貨を預かり始めたのかを知る必要があると思ったわけだ。次にその預金を融資にまわしても問題が起きないことを金匠が発見し、最終的に預けられた預金量の9割まで貸し付けてもOKということを会得して、自己資金の何倍も貸し付けて収益を最大化させたいった時期を知りたいわけだ。要するに、レバレッジを効かせると利益が飛躍的に増えることを金貸しは知るわけだ。これこそ一大金融革命だろう。
そしてその時期を見定める一応の目安として、十字軍以降の北イタリアの金融組織の隆盛から莫大な投機資金が必要であったろうルネサンス期の大航海時代の始まりあたりまでの300年間が一番怪しいというか、金融世界の大変革期とみられることから、この時代に完成されていったシステムであろうと私は勝手に当りをつけた。ここまでが前回の投稿だったように思う。
北イタリアのいフィレンツェ、ヴェニスの隆盛時代がストレートに結びつくわけだ。

しかし、そこでえらく引っかかる問題があり、やたらと気になって仕方ない。そもそも、その十字軍遠征を可能ならしめた巨大な戦費はどこから来たのかということである。ローマ教皇に金を貸し、その呼びかけに呼応して遠征に参加しようという各国の国王や貴族に金を貸すって、学者が文字で書くのは簡単でも現実には簡単に出来ることではないだろう。すでにこの時点で巨大な金融勢力の存在がイタリアを中心に存在していたことは疑いようがないように思われる。
ルネサンス期であれば、それは「宮廷ユダヤ人」なら可能だったのではないか…?、などと強引に推理できたとしても、あまり無理とは思えないのだが、十字軍はその400年前のことである。ましてこのとき各地に散在していたユダヤ人部落は無惨にもひどく殲滅されてしまうわけだから、当時の巨大な金融勢力がユダヤ組織であったと考えることには無理がある。味方を殺しても平気な勢力が既にこの当時から存在していたと考えるのは常識的には無理である。

そうであるのなら、11世紀には既に巨大な金融勢力があったとして、それはどこから来たのか…ということを知らなければならないことになる。素人考えながら思い浮かぶことは、何故イタリアの地で14世紀に損害保険や銀行の誕生など制度的に金融革命的な出来事が起きたのか…ということである。イタリアと言えば真っ先に思い起こすのは、この地にかつてあのローマ帝国が存在したということである。そして地中海といえば、そのローマ帝国が1000年以上にわたり地中海貿易を一手に仕切ってきたフェニキア人の要衝・カルタゴを滅ぼした帝国である、ということである。
1000年以上地中海貿易を一手に仕切ってきた…ということが、どういうことを意味しているのか理解することは容易でない。1000年の間一体、どれだけの交易基地が増え、数多くの船が地中海に作られていっただろうか?。交易が増えるということは決済が増えつづけるということであり、つまりは預金・貸付・手形・小切手・為替相場などの金融業務は当り前のように大きく膨れ上がり金融技術も大きく変化し発展していったに違いない。
そしてBC146年、カルタゴがローマ帝国に滅ぼされたからといってフェニキア人が全員虐殺されたわけでもないのだから、今度はローマ帝国の支配管理下で交易と金融を継続させていったに違いない。ちょっと驚きだが、後のローマ皇帝の中には敗軍の民・フェニキア人の血を引く皇帝までいるということだが、にわかには信じられない。しかも、あれほど禁じ弾圧したキリスト教が国教にまでなってしまうというのは何とも不思議でもある。
とにかく、地中海貿易を一手に牛耳っていたフェニキアの1000年、その滅亡から十字軍遠征までの1100年、その2000年余の間に産業と金融の世界にどのような変化が生じたのか知らないということは、ちょっと致命的で辛すぎる知識不足だ。

「ゴールドスミス・ノートが気になる(9)」への178件のフィードバック

  1. I simply wished to thank you very much yet again. I do not know what I would have used without those tips and hints shown by you relating to this theme. This has been the traumatic setting in my view, nevertheless viewing your well-written technique you treated the issue took me to weep with joy. Now i am thankful for your work as well as wish you recognize what an amazing job your are undertaking training the others with the aid of your website. Probably you haven’t met any of us.

  2. I am also writing to make you know what a incredible encounter my friend’s child encountered browsing the blog. She came to understand a lot of details, including how it is like to have a great coaching character to get certain people completely comprehend a variety of complex issues. You actually did more than her desires. I appreciate you for coming up with such essential, dependable, edifying and cool guidance on that topic to Ethel.

  3. I simply wanted to thank you so much once more. I do not know what I would’ve taken care of without these suggestions revealed by you over that subject. It was an absolute horrifying problem in my position, nevertheless spending time with this specialized style you resolved the issue took me to leap with happiness. I will be happy for your service and then sincerely hope you realize what an amazing job you have been providing teaching some other people using your webblog. Most likely you haven’t got to know any of us.

  4. I am also commenting to let you know of the helpful encounter my friend’s daughter found reading through your web page. She figured out numerous issues, not to mention what it’s like to have an amazing giving mood to have most people really easily know selected impossible subject areas. You really exceeded our own expectations. Many thanks for imparting the invaluable, safe, explanatory and even easy thoughts on the topic to Janet.

  5. I simply wished to thank you very much yet again. I do not know what I would have undertaken without these thoughts shared by you regarding this subject matter. It was before the scary scenario in my position, nevertheless taking note of this specialized tactic you solved the issue took me to weep with happiness. Now i’m thankful for your support and thus trust you really know what an amazing job you were putting in training the mediocre ones via your webpage. Most probably you haven’t met any of us.

  6. Thanks for the useful information on credit repair on your web-site. The thing I would offer as advice to people will be to give up a mentality they will buy at this moment and pay back later. As being a society most people tend to repeat this for many factors. This includes family vacations, furniture, plus items we really want to have. However, you must separate a person’s wants from the needs. When you’re working to fix your credit score you really have to make some trade-offs. For example you possibly can shop online to economize or you can click on second hand suppliers instead of highly-priced department stores to get clothing.

  7. I’m commenting to let you be aware of of the awesome discovery my child developed browsing the blog. She came to find a good number of details, including how it is like to have a great coaching character to get certain people completely comprehend a number of advanced issues. You actually did more than her desires. I appreciate you for coming up with such effective, dependable, edifying and cool guidance on that topic to Emily.

  8. I acquired more new stuff on this losing weight issue. Just one issue is a good nutrition is vital if dieting. A big reduction in bad foods, sugary foodstuff, fried foods, sweet foods, pork, and white colored flour products may perhaps be necessary. Retaining wastes harmful bacteria, and contaminants may prevent aims for losing belly fat. While specified drugs momentarily solve the matter, the bad side effects are usually not worth it, they usually never give more than a short lived solution. It can be a known incontrovertible fact that 95% of diet plans fail. Many thanks sharing your notions on this web site. https://osteoporosismedi.com osteoporosis drugs over the counter for sale

  9. We’re a group of volunteers and starting a new scheme in our community.
    Your site provided us with valuable information to work on. You’ve done an impressive job and our whole community will be thankful to you.

  10. My brother suggested I might like this website. He was entirely right.

    This post actually made my day. You cann’t imagine just how much time I
    had spent for this information! Thanks!

  11. Hey there, You have done a fantastic job. I’ll certainly digg it and personally
    suggest to my friends. I am sure they will be benefited from this website.

  12. Have you ever thought about creating an e-book or guest authoring on other
    sites? I have a blog based upon on the same information you discuss and would really like
    to have you share some stories/information. I know my subscribers would value your
    work. If you are even remotely interested, feel free to send
    me an email.

  13. I blog quite often and I seriously appreciate your content.

    This great article has truly peaked my interest. I will book mark your website and keep checking for new details about once a week.
    I opted in for your RSS feed too. 0mniartist asmr

  14. I would like to thank you for the efforts you’ve put in writing this site.

    I am hoping to check out the same high-grade blog posts by
    you later on as well. In truth, your creative writing abilities has encouraged me to get my very own blog now 😉

    Also visit my webpage CBD gummies for sleep

  15. Fantastic goods from you, man. I’ve understand your stuff previous to and you’re just extremely great.
    I really like what you have acquired here, really like what you are stating and the way in which you say it.
    You make it entertaining and you still care for to keep
    it sensible. I cant wait to read far more from you.
    This is actually a tremendous site.

    my homepage: cbd for sale

  16. Aw, this was a really good post. Spending some time and actual effort to produce a superb article… but what can I
    say… I put things off a whole lot and don’t manage to get nearly anything done.

    asmr 0mniartist

  17. It’s amazing to visit this web site and reading the views of all mates regarding this post, while I am also eager of getting familiarity.
    0mniartist asmr

  18. When someone writes an article he/she maintains the image of a user in his/her brain that how a user can be aware
    of it. Thus that’s why this paragraph is perfect.
    Thanks!

  19. It’s appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy.
    I’ve read this post and if I could I want to suggest you few
    interesting things or tips. Maybe you could write next articles referring to this article.
    I desire to read even more things about it!

  20. Hello are using WordPress for your blog platform? I’m
    new to the blog world but I’m trying to get
    started and set up my own. Do you require any coding expertise to make your own blog?
    Any help would be greatly appreciated!

    Here is my web page :: delta 8 carts

  21. Today, while I was at work, my sister stole my iPad and tested
    to see if it can survive a forty foot drop, just so she can be a youtube
    sensation. My iPad is now broken and she has 83 views.
    I know this is completely off topic but I had to share it with someone!

  22. I don’t know whether it’s just me or if everybody else experiencing issues with your website.
    It seems like some of the text on your content are running off the
    screen. Can someone else please comment and let me know
    if this is happening to them as well? This may be a issue with my browser because I’ve had this happen before.
    Kudos

  23. Nice blog here! Additionally your site quite a bit up very fast!
    What web host are you the use of? Can I get your affiliate hyperlink for your host?
    I desire my website loaded up as quickly as yours lol

  24. I think that everything published made a great deal of
    sense. However, think about this, suppose you wrote a catchier post title?
    I am not saying your information isn’t good, but what if you added something that grabbed people’s attention? I mean ゴールドスミス・ノートが気になる(9) is kinda vanilla.
    You should peek at Yahoo’s front page and see how they create news headlines to
    get viewers to open the links. You might try adding a video or
    a related picture or two to get people interested about
    everything’ve written. In my opinion, it would bring your website a little livelier.

  25. Thanks for your personal marvelous posting! I truly enjoyed reading it, you are a great author.
    I will always bookmark your blog and will often come back sometime soon. I want to
    encourage you continue your great writing, have a nice
    weekend!

  26. scoliosis
    What’s up everyone, it’s my first pay a quick visit at this website, and post is
    truly fruitful for me, keep up posting these types of articles.
    scoliosis

  27. Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems as though
    you relied on the video to make your point.

    You definitely know what youre talking about, why waste your intelligence on just
    posting videos to your site when you could be giving us something informative to read?

  28. I’m now not sure the place you’re getting your info, however great topic.
    I must spend some time learning more or working out more. Thanks for
    magnificent information I used to be looking for this
    information for my mission.

  29. I don’t know if it’s just me or if perhaps everybody else encountering issues
    with your site. It appears like some of the text in your content are running off the screen. Can someone else please
    comment and let me know if this is happening to them as well?
    This could be a issue with my browser because I’ve had this
    happen previously. Thank you

  30. Hi there just wanted to give you a quick heads up and let you know a few of the pictures aren’t loading properly.
    I’m not sure why but I think its a linking issue. I’ve tried it
    in two different browsers and both show the
    same outcome.

  31. Please let me know if you’re looking for a article author for your site.
    You have some really great posts and I think I would
    be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d love
    to write some content for your blog in exchange for
    a link back to mine. Please blast me an email if interested.
    Kudos!

  32. Thanks , I have just been looking for info approximately this
    subject for a long time and yours is the best I have came upon so far.
    But, what about the bottom line? Are you positive in regards to the source?

  33. My partner and I stumbled over here from a different web address and thought I should check things out.
    I like what I see so now i am following you. Look forward to exploring your web page for a second time.

  34. Hi there, I think your site might be having browser compatibility
    problems. Whenever I look at your web site in Safari, it looks fine however
    when opening in I.E., it’s got some overlapping issues.
    I simply wanted to provide you with a quick heads up!
    Other than that, excellent website!

  35. Hello there! I know this is kind of off topic but I
    was wondering if you knew where I could locate a captcha plugin for my comment form?
    I’m using the same blog platform as yours and I’m having problems finding one?
    Thanks a lot!

  36. naturally like your web-site but you need to check the spelling
    on quite a few of your posts. A number of them
    are rife with spelling problems and I to find it very bothersome
    to tell the truth then again I will surely come back again.

  37. You can certainly see your skills within the work you write.
    The sector hopes for even more passionate writers like you who aren’t afraid to mention how they
    believe. All the time follow your heart.

  38. My programmer is trying to persuade me to move to .net from PHP.
    I have always disliked the idea because of the expenses.

    But he’s tryiong none the less. I’ve been using Movable-type on a variety of
    websites for about a year and am worried about switching
    to another platform. I have heard excellent things about
    blogengine.net. Is there a way I can transfer
    all my wordpress posts into it? Any kind of help would be really appreciated!

  39. Heya i’m for the first time here. I came across this board and I find It truly useful & it helped me out much.
    I hope to give something back and aid others like you
    helped me.

  40. I’ve read several just right stuff here. Certainly worth bookmarking for revisiting.
    I surprise how so much attempt you set to make such a
    great informative website.

  41. Hi there all, here every one is sharing such
    know-how, thus it’s pleasant to read this web
    site, and I used to pay a visit this webpage every day.

    Feel free to visit my web site – THC edibles

  42. It is really a great and useful piece of information. I am happy that you just shared
    this helpful information with us. Please stay us up to date like this.
    Thanks for sharing.

    Check out my blog post Tri-Bol Testo

  43. Its like you learn my mind! You seem to understand a lot approximately this, like you
    wrote the ebook in it or something. I think that you just could do with some p.c.
    to force the message house a little bit, but instead of that, this is wonderful
    blog. A fantastic read. I will certainly be back.

    Here is my page :: Breeze Tec

  44. Nice post. I learn something new and challenging on websites I stumbleupon every day.
    It’s always useful to read articles from other authors and practice a little something from other web sites.

    Review my webpage :: Nuubu Reviews

  45. Hello very cool web site!! Guy .. Beautiful .. Amazing ..
    I’ll bookmark your web site and take the feeds also?
    I’m happy to seek out so many helpful info right here within the publish, we
    need work out extra techniques on this regard, thanks for sharing.
    . . . . .

    Feel free to surf to my website – Nuubu Detox Patches

  46. Hello are using WordPress for your site platform?

    I’m new to the blog world but I’m trying to get started and create my own. Do you
    require any html coding knowledge to make your own blog? Any help would be greatly appreciated!

    Here is my homepage :: Boltz Pro Charger

  47. I must thank you for the efforts you’ve put
    in penning this site. I’m hoping to view the same high-grade content by you later on as well.

    In fact, your creative writing abilities has encouraged me to get my own website now 😉

    Here is my web page; Nuubu

  48. Unquestionably believe that which you said. Your favorite
    reason appeared to be on the web the simplest thing to be aware of.
    I say to you, I certainly get annoyed while people think about worries that they
    plainly don’t know about. You managed to hit
    the nail upon the top and also defined out the whole thing without having side effect , people
    could take a signal. Will probably be back to get more. Thanks

    my webpage – Tri-Bol Testo Pills

  49. I truly love your blog.. Great colors & theme. Did you make this web site yourself?
    Please reply back as I’m wanting to create my very own blog and would like to learn where you got
    this from or exactly what the theme is named.
    Thank you!

    My webpage – Tri-Bol Testo

  50. Right here is the right website for anybody who would
    like to understand this topic. You realize a whole lot its almost tough to argue with you (not that I personally will need to?HaHa).
    You definitely put a brand new spin on a subject which has been written about for ages.
    Excellent stuff, just wonderful!

    Review my web blog – Kodo Detox Patches

  51. Thank you for any other fantastic article. The place else may just anyone get that kind
    of information in such a perfect method of writing?
    I’ve a presentation subsequent week, and I am at the look for such information.

    My site … Elisa

  52. I really like your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you make this website
    yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you? Plz reply as I’m looking to create
    my own blog and would like to find out where u got
    this from. thanks a lot

    Also visit my blog … fotosombra.com.br

  53. I’ve learn a few excellent stuff here. Certainly price bookmarking for revisiting.

    I wonder how a lot effort you place to make this type of magnificent informative web
    site.

    Here is my web-site: Kodo Detox

  54. Do you have a spam problem on this site; I also am a blogger, and I was curious about your situation; we
    have developed some nice practices and we are
    looking to trade strategies with others, please shoot me an e-mail
    if interested.

    Feel free to visit my webpage: Nuubu Detox

  55. I do not write a leave a response, but after looking at some of the
    responses here ゴールドスミス・ノートが気になる(9).
    I do have 2 questions for you if you do not mind.
    Could it be just me or does it look like like some of these remarks come across like they are written by brain dead people?
    😛 And, if you are writing at other places, I’d like to follow anything fresh you have to post.
    Would you make a list of the complete urls of your social
    community sites like your linkedin profile, Facebook page or twitter feed?

    My web blog – Tri-Bol Testo

  56. My spouse and i still can’t quite assume that
    I could end up being one of those reading through the important ideas
    found on your blog. My family and I are seriously thankful on your generosity and for presenting me the chance to pursue my own chosen profession path.
    Thanks for the important information I managed to get from your web-site.

    Also visit my web page chengdian.cc

  57. Hi there would you mind letting me know which hosting company you’re using?
    I’ve loaded your blog in 3 different browsers and I must say this
    blog loads a lot faster then most. Can you recommend a good internet hosting provider at a honest price?

    Many thanks, I appreciate it!

    Here is my webpage: Air Cooler Pro

  58. Thank you for all your work on this website. My mum take interest
    in participating in research and it’s easy to understand
    why. Most of us hear all relating to the compelling method you
    present reliable guidance via the website and therefore
    invigorate participation from some other people on this situation and our favorite girl
    is without question discovering a lot. Take advantage of
    the remaining portion of the new year. Your conducting a remarkable job.[X-N-E-W-L-I-N-S-P-I-N-X]I’m really inspired along
    with your writing abilities and also with the structure on your weblog.
    Is that this a paid subject matter or did you customize it yourself?

    Anyway stay up the nice quality writing, it’s rare to see a great weblog like this one nowadays.

    Also visit my webpage :: DivineDynamic Keto

  59. Howdy! I could have sworn I?ve visited this site before
    but after browsing through many of the posts I
    realized it?s new to me. Anyhow, I?m definitely pleased I stumbled upon it and I?ll
    be book-marking it and checking back often!

    Here is my web page TechPro Wifi

  60. Magnificent goods from you, man. I’ve understand your stuff previous to and you’re just extremely fantastic.
    I actually like what you have acquired here, certainly like what you are stating and the way
    in which you say it. You make it enjoyable and you still care for to keep it sensible.
    I can not wait to read much more from you. This is really a great site.

    Feel free to surf to my web-site: weed dealer

  61. Hello, i read your blog occasionally and i own a similar one and i was just wondering if you get a lot of spam
    remarks? If so how do you protect against it, any plugin or anything you can recommend?
    I get so much lately it’s driving me insane so any help is very much appreciated.

    Stop by my page :: tiktok followers

  62. Howdy! This post could not be written any better! Reading through this post reminds me
    of my old room mate! He always kept talking about this. I will forward this page to him.
    Pretty sure he will have a good read. Many thanks for sharing!

    Here is my blog post Mega Arise Max Pills

  63. I seriously love your website.. Pleasant colors & theme.
    Did you develop this web site yourself? Please reply back as I?m planning to create my own personal website and would love to learn where you got this from or exactly what the theme is named.

    Many thanks!

    Also visit my webpage: http://shihan.com.ru/

  64. This website certainly has all the info I wanted concerning this
    subject and didn’t know who to ask.

    Feel free to surf to my web-site; Rita

  65. Cool blog! Is your theme custom made or did you download
    it from somewhere? A theme like yours with a few
    simple tweeks would really make my blog stand out.

    Please let me know where you got your theme. Thank you

    Feel free to visit my blog :: buy weed (Helene)

  66. Hey! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any trouble with hackers?
    My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing several weeks of hard work due to no back up.
    Do you have any methods to stop hackers?

    Here is my web-site: mpc-install.com

  67. I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme.
    Did you make this website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you?
    Plz reply as I’m looking to construct my own blog and would like to know where u
    got this from. kudos

    My homepage Naked CBD

  68. I used to be suggested this website through my
    cousin. I am no longer certain whether or not this submit is written by
    means of him as no one else realize such specific approximately my problem.
    You’re amazing! Thank you!

    Also visit my web blog Viking XL

  69. Good day! I could have sworn I?ve been to this website
    before but after looking at some of the posts I realized
    it?s new to me. Regardless, I?m certainly delighted I came across it and
    I?ll be book-marking it and checking back frequently!

    Here is my web blog – DivineDynamic Keto

  70. Greetings from Ohio! I’m bored at work so I decided to check out
    your blog on my iphone during lunch break.
    I enjoy the information you present here and can’t wait to take a look when I get home.
    I’m amazed at how quick your blog loaded on my cell phone ..
    I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyhow, good blog!

    Visit my webpage – http://www.hotelforrest.ru

  71. I have to thank you for the efforts you’ve put in writing this site.

    I am hoping to check out the same high-grade blog posts from you in the future as well.
    In truth, your creative writing abilities has
    motivated me to get my own, personal site now 😉

    Feel free to visit my web blog … best cbd treats for dogs

  72. Awesome blog! Do you have any tips and hints for aspiring writers?
    I’m hoping to start my own site soon but I’m a little lost on everything.
    Would you advise starting with a free platform like WordPress
    or go for a paid option? There are so many choices out there that I’m completely overwhelmed ..
    Any ideas? Thank you!

    Feel free to surf to my web-site; Viro Max Ultra Review

  73. Thanks for some other informative web site. Where else could
    I am getting that kind of info written in such an ideal manner?
    I have a project that I am just now running on, and I have been on the
    glance out for such info.

コメントを残す

メールアドレスが公開されることはありません。